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These translations are from Chazan [1980], pp 84-93.

Other translations are available from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/1244-jews-austria.html (Translation of Frederick II's 1244 charter on Paul Halsell's Internet Medieval History Sourcebook of Fordham University), and Pogonowski [1993]. The Fordham translation of the 1244 charter is virtually identical with Chazan's, with some commentary that is different from the latter.



DUKE FREDERICK II OF AUSTRIA, 1244 DUKE BOLESLAW THE PIOUS OF POLAND, 1264 Comments (Ginsburg)
FREDERICK, BY THE GRACE OF GOD duke of Austria and Styria and lord of Carniola, offers greetings at all times to all who will read this letter in the future:

Inasmuch as we desire that men of all classes dwelling in our land should share our favor and good will, we do therefore decree that these laws, devised for all Jews found in the land of Austria, shall be observed by them without violation.
IN THE NAME OF THE LORD, amen. The actions of the human species quickly dissipate and disappear from memory, unless they are preserved by the voice of witnesses or by the testimony of documents. Therefore we Boleslav, by the grace of God duke of Greater Poland, inform those both present and future whose attention the present charter will reach, that we have caused to be prescribed for our Jews living throughout the area of our domain these statutes and privileges which they have obtained from us, word for word, as contained in the following series: Both hope their charters will be observed permanently, although they probably don't really expect that to happen.
1. We decree, therefore, first, that in cases involving money, or immovable property, or a criminal complaint touching the person or property of a Jew, no Christian shall be admitted as a witness against a Jew unless there is a Jewish witness together with the Christian. 1. We decree, therefore, first, that in cases involving money, or movable property, or immovable property, or a criminal complaint touching the person or property of a Jew, no Christian shall be admitted as a witness against a Jew unless there is a Jewish witness together with the Christian. no change
2. Likewise, if a Christian should bring suit against a Jew, asserting that he had pawned his pledges with him and the Jew should deny this, and then if the Christian should not wish to accord any belief in the mere statement of the Jew, the Jew may prove his contention by taking an oath upon an object equivalent in value to that which was brought to him and shall then go forth free. 2. Likewise, if a Christian should bring suit against a Jew, asserting that he had pawned his pledges with him and the Jew should deny this, and then if the Christian should not wish to accord any belief in the mere statement of the Jew, the Jew may prove his contention by taking an oath upon an object equivalent in value to that which was brought to him and shall then go forth free. no change
3. Likewise, if a Christian has deposited a pledge with a Jew, stating that he had left it with the Jew for a smaller sum than the Jew admits, the Jew shall then take an oath upon the pledge pawned with him, and the Christian must not refuse to pay the amount that the Jew has proved through his own oath. 3. Likewise, if a Christian has deposited a pledge with a Jew, stating that he had left it with the Jew for a smaller sum than the Jew admits, the Jew shall then take an oath upon the pledge pawned with him, and the Christian must not refuse to pay the amount that the Jew has proved through his oath. no change
4. Likewise, if a Jew says that he returned the Christian's pledge as a loan to the Christian, without, however, the presence of witnesses, and if the Christian deny this, then the Christian is able to clear himself in this matter through his own oath. 4. Likewise, if a Jew says that he returned the Christian's pledge as a loan to the Christian, without, however, the presence of witnesses, and if the Christian deny this, then the Christian is able to clear himself in this matter through his own oath. no change
5. Likewise, a Jew is allowed to receive as pledges all things which may be pawned with him – no matter what they are called – without making any investigation about them, except bloody and wet clothes which he shall under no circumstances accept. 5. Likewise, a Jew is allowed to receive as pledges all things which may be pawned with him – no matter what they are called – without making any investigation about them, except bloody and wet clothes and sacred vessels which he shall under no circumstances accept. no change
6. Likewise, if a Christian charges that the pledge which a Jew has was taken from him by theft or robbery, the Jew must swear on that pledge that when he received it he did not know that it had been removed by theft or robbery. In this oath the amount for which the pledge was pawned to him shall also be included. Then, inasmuch as the Jew has brought his proof, the Christian shall pay him the capital and the interest that has accrued in the meantime. 6. Likewise, if a Christian charges that the pledge which a Jew has was taken from him by theft or robbery, the Jew must swear on that pledge that when he received it he did not know that it had been removed by theft or robbery. In this oath the amount for which the pledge was pawned to him shall also be included. Then, inasmuch as the Jew has brought his proof, the Christian shall pay him the capital and the interest that has accrued in the meantime. no change
7. Likewise, if a Jew, through the accident of fire or through theft or violence, should lose his own goods, together with the pledges pawned with him, and this is established, yet the Christian who has pledged something with him nevertheless brings suit against him, the Jew may free himself merely by his own oath. 7. Likewise, if a Jew, through the accident of fire or through theft or violence, should lose his own goods, together with the pledges pawned with him, and this is established, yet the Christian who has pledged something with him nevertheless brings suit against him, the Jew may free himself merely by his own oath. no change
8. Likewise, if the Jews engage in quarreling or actually fight among themselves, the judge of our city shall claim no jurisdiction over them; only the duke alone or the chief official of his land shall exercise jurisdiction. If, however, the accusation touches the person, this case shall be reserved for the duke alone for judgment.
8. Likewise, if the Jews engage in quarreling or actually fight among themselves, the judge of our city shall claim no jurisdiction over them; only we alone or our palatine or his judge shall exercise jurisdiction. If, however, the accusation touches the person, this case shall be reserved for us alone for judgment. these are probably equivalent
9. Likewise, if a Christian should inflict any sort of a wound upon a Jew, the accused shall pay to the duke twelve marks of gold which are to be turned in to the treasury. He must also pay to the person who has been injured twelve marks of silver and the expenses incurred for the medicine needed in his cure. 9. Likewise, if a Christian should inflict any sort of a wound upon a Jew, the accused shall pay a fine to us and to our palatine, according to that which our grace decides, to be remitted to our treasury. He must also pay the person who has been injured for the care of his wound and for expenses, as the laws of our land require and demand. fixed payments changed to variable
10. Likewise, if a Christian should kill a Jew, he shall be punished with the proper sentence, death, and all his movable and immovable property shall pass into the power of the duke. 10. Likewise, if a Christian should kill a Jew, he shall be punished with the proper sentence and all his movable and immovable property shall pass into our power. mandatory death sentence eliminated
11. Likewise, if a Christian strikes a Jew, without, however, having spilled his blood, he shall pay to the duke four marks of gold, and to the man he struck four marks of silver. If he has no money, he shall offer satisfaction for the crime committed by the loss of his hand. 11. Likewise, if a Christian strikes a Jew, without, however, having spilled his blood, a fine will be required by the palatine according to the custom of our land, He shall also pay the man struck or injured in the manner which is customary in our land. If he has no money, he shall be punished for the crime committed as is just. fixed payments changed to variable
12. Likewise, wherever a Jew shall pass through our territory, no one shall offer any hindrance to him or molest or trouble him. If, however, he should be carrying any goods or other things for which he must pay duty at all custom offices, he shall pay only the prescribed duty which a citizen of that town, in which the Jew is then dwelling, pays. 12. Likewise, wherever a Jew shall pass through our territory, no one shall offer any hindrance to him or molest or trouble him. If, however, he should be carrying any goods or other things for which he must pay duty at all customs offices, he shall pay only the prescribed duty which a citizen of that town, in which the Jew is then dwelling, pays. no change
13. Likewise, if the Jews, as is their custom, should transport any of their dead either from city to city, or from province to province, or from one Austrian land into another, we do not wish anything to be demanded of them by our customs officers. If, however, a customs officer should extort anything, then he is to be punished for praedatio mortui, which means in common language, robbery of the dead. 13. Likewise, if the Jews, as is their custom, should transport any of their dead either from city to city, or from province to province, or from one land into another, we do not wish anything to be demanded of them by our customs officers. If, however, a customs officer should extort anything, then we wish him punished as a robber. perhaps these are equivalent
14. Likewise, if a Christian, moved by insolence, shall break into or devastate the cemetery of the Jews, he shall die, as the court determines, and all his property, whatever it may be, shall be forfeited to the treasury of the duke. 14. Likewise, if a Christian, moved by insolence, shall break into or devastate the cemetery of the Jews, we wish that he be gravely punished according to the custom and laws of our land and that all his property, whatever it may be, shall be forfeited to our treasury. mandatory death sentence eliminated
15. Likewise, if anyone wickedly throw something at the synagogues of the Jews, we order that he pay two talents to the judge of the Jews. 15. Likewise, if anyone wickedly throw something at the synagogues of the Jews, we order that he pay two talents of pepper to our palatine. Does the 1244 Charter assume the two talents are "of pepper"?
16. Likewise, if a Jew be condemned by his judge to a money penalty, which is called wandel, he shall pay only twelve pennies to him. 16. Likewise, if a Jew be condemned by his judge to a money penalty, which is called wandel, he shall pay him a fine of a talent of pepper, which has been imposed from antiquity. amount of fine is changed
17 . Likewise, if a Jew is summoned to court by order of his judge, but does not come the first or second time, he must pay the judge four pennies for each time. If he does not come at the third summons, he shall pay thirty-six pennies to the judge mentioned. 17. Likewise, if a Jew is summoned to court by order of his judge, but does not come the first or second time, he must pay the judge for each time the fine which is customary from antiquity. If he does not come at the third summons, he shall pay to the judge mentioned the subsequent fine. fixed monetary fine changed to customary fine
18. Likewise, if a Jew has wounded another Jew, he may not refuse to pay a penalty of two talents, which is called wandel, to his judge. 18. Likewise, if a Jew has wounded another Jew, he may not refuse to pay to his judge a fine according to the custom of our land. fixed monetary fine changed to customary fine
     

Read the second half of these charters.


© Translations, Robert Chazan, 1980; © everything else (comments and format), Sam Ginsburg, 2008-2013. All rights reserved.
Last modified 25 Feb. 2013