Home  ->  History  ->  Introduction to Przedbórz & Polish & Jewish General History   ->  Przedbórz & Polish & Jewish General History to 1264

This section is gradually being written while research is continuing.

Year Event Source
“second century” Kalisz (Kalixia) mentioned in Ptolemy’s Geography (so Poland must have had some significant towns by then.) Davies [1982a], pg. xxix
“ninth century” Khazar elite converts to Judaism, thinking it will make it easier to deal with both Christians and Muslims, and link them into the Jewish trading network. Later on, Kiev, Poland, Ukraine have districts named Kozary (as in Kuzari, or the Khazars.) Some historians attribute these to the Khazar influence, others think the name is unrelated to the Khazars. Abramsky [1986], pg. 16, 18

See Litman [1984, Chap. 3] for a discussion of the controversies surrounding the hypothesis that Khazari Jews (or other Jews) migrated to Poland from the East.
“tenth century” A few Jewish communities have appeared in what’s now Poland Abramsky [1986], pg. 15
approx. 960 Poland “united” by Prince Mieszko I, court originally centered in Gniezno. Prazmowska [2004], pg. 7
956-966 Ibrahim-Ibn-Jakub, a “Moorish Jew”, accompanies the Caliph of Cordoba to Prague and perhaps Krakow, provides the earliest surviving accounts (or at least surviving quotes) of Slavic Europe. Davies [1982a], pg. 3
966 Mieszko and his court become Christians. Most histories use this as the “official” start of the unified country of Poland.

Mieszko accepts baptism from Bohemia rather than Otto of Germany, thereby creating some room for opposing tensions with Otto, and eliminating paganism as an excuse for Western invasions of Poland.
Zamoyski [1988]

(Sources to follow.)
1017 Alfonso V of Leon in Spain grants a charter to the Jews http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/
“early to mid-11th century” The Krakow Jewish community mentioned in the Sefer HaDinim: two traveling Jewish merchants selling or displaying their wares to the Krakow Jewish community get into a dispute [SG: resolved by the Krakow bet din?] Krakow is a major regional trading center by now. Abramsky [1986]
“before 1085” Jews described as selling to Prince Vladyslaus Herman’s wife, Judith Abramsky [1986], pg. 21
19 Feb. 1090, Speyer, Germany and approx. 1090, Worms, Germany Emperor Henry IV gives charters for the Jews of Speyer & Worms. (Linder [1997], pg 353 says the latter has been lost.) I can't tell how widely the protections were extended -- some parts look as though they might have applied throughout the kingdom. Marcus, pg 33; Chazan [1980], pg. 60; Linder [1997], pg 353, 393-396. See it at http://www.ccjr.us/index.php/dialogika-resources/primary-texts-from-the-history-of-the-relationship/256-henry-iv
Feb. 1, 1095 Emperor Henry IV issues a charter banning forced conversion of Jews (throughout Germany only?) http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/
1113 The Jewish community of Kiev mentioned in an account of the “1113 troubles” Abramsky [1986], pg. 18
1100 - 1135 Henry I grants some sort of charter to the Jews of England http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/
1145 Przedbórz is first mentioned, in a document granting income (from bridge tolls?) to the Trzemenesznie monastery. It's not clear if the town is owned by the King or by the monastery, but I'm guessing it was the King. Slownik [1888]
“12th century” Jews are recorded in Przedbórz, according to the Diapositive Information Service. www.diapozytyw.pl/en/site/slady_i_judaica/Przedborz (Link is broken as of Dec. 2011; http://www.diapositive.pl/ doesn't seem to have a history timeline.)
1236 on Many rulers issue charters granting rights to Jews in various jurisdictions. (The list eludes me for the moment.)  
1242 Wroclaw (Breslau) receives the first municipal charter in Poland. Davies [1982a]
July 1, 1244 Duke Frederick II of Austria grants a charter to the Jews of Austria, with significant additional protections than earlier charters. (Per Chazan [1980] pg. 84. Note: some sources have probably made typographical errors by dating the charter as June 1, not July 1.) See it in Chazan [1980], pp 84-88, or at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/1244-jews-austria.html
1264 Boleslaw the Pious grants a Jewish charter (“the Kalisz statute”), adapted from the 1244 charter of Duke Frederick II of Austria, with "significant new safeguard[s] of Jewish rights" (per Chazan [1980], page 88). Abramsky [1986]; See Pogonowski [1993] or Chazan [1980], pp 89-93 for English translations.


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Last modified 24 Feb. 2013