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Przedbórz Town History in brief
(Also see the Introduction to General Polish and Jewish History, especially 1700 on.)


1.  Discussing Magdeburg Rules would take us far afield. Suffice it to say that in those days towns and cities had varying degrees of autonomy, depending on who had jurisdiction (ownership or control) over the town or city. Magdeburg, Germany was the prototype for one type of charter giving a relatively high degree of governmental autonomy to the town's inhabitants.

2.  The Duke of Earl© is a 1962 hit R&B or "doo-wop" song by Gene Chandler. It was #1 for three weeks. Read its Wikipedia entry.

3.  Thanks to Andy Taylor [Editor, (Britain's) Austrian Philatelic Society] for introducing me to those website pages, and to Roman Sobus for suggesting I contact the Society.

For a very readable machine translation of these sites, go to Google Language Tools, choose the languages (German to English), and paste the URL into the translate website box. The back and next buttons at the bottom even work, so you can page back and forth and the pages will be translated. Very helpful!!!
  (Note that the Polish to English doesn't translate as well as German to English.)
The two pages listed may be the only Przedbórz references in this particular source. Please let me know if there are other references.
According to Chapter 2 of Dixon-Nuttell, the Austrian-Hungarian military had a "unified command", but individual units were recruited as much as possible from individual geographical areas so that the unit would have a common language (i.e., so that the men could understand each other.) The 31st Nagyszeben Infantry Regiment (31. I.R.) is identified as Infanterieregiment Pucherna Nr.31 in and was 69% Romanian at the start of WWI. Nagyszeben, in Transylvania, is now identified as Sibiu, Romania, according to Google Earth and other internet sources. In German it was Hermannstadt, I believe. Dixon-Nuttell chapter 3 seems to imply the 31. I.R. was in the 12th Corps, but that deserves a closer reading. seems to indicate the 31. I.R. was part of the 2nd Army, 12th Corps, 16th Infantry Division, but again a more careful reading is needed.

This phase of WWI (fighting near Przedbórz) is sometimes called the Przasnysz campaign.
4. was one such site, but it's been moved.

© 2007-14 Sam Ginsburg; Special thanks to Roy & Christina Koczarski & Adam (Zbigniew) Chojczak, who are NOT responsible for any errors above.

Last modified 30 Mar. 2015