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This page consolidates and summarizes the confusing subject of Przedbórz proofs and makulatura.

Some Issue II proofs, and all Issue III & IV proofs are double-sided, also known as makulatura.  See some theories about their production.

See the catalog cross reference for Fischer, Michel and other catalog listings.

Issue I: See images of proofs alongside regular issue stamps.  The discussion is on the Issue I varieties page.

Issue II: See images of single-sided proofs alongside regular issue stamps.  The discussion is on the Issue II varieties page, which also includes a summary of Issue II double-sided proofs or makulatura.

Issues III and IV proofs are all double-sided makulatura. Click on the preceding roman numeral to see the list.  Each side is a regular-issue image, so there are not special pictures on this website.

Issue V and the posthumous issues: No proofs or makulatura are known.




2015 Sam Ginsburg

Last modified 11 June 2015