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Warning: some of the following is a little convoluted. The bottom line is that the two-sided prints might be non-philatelic (i.e., have been created as part of a "normal" printing process) only if:

  1. paper was in short supply and/or quite expensive, and
  2. there were multiple print runs of all the stamps in Issues 2, 3, and 4.

Double-Sided Proofs ("Makulatura", or printers' waste)

 Front: Cat. #11, type 1
I can come up with only one scenario to suggest that Przedbórz "double-sided proofs" may not have been strictly philatelic:

 Back: Cat. #14, type 1.
This only makes sense if certain denominations were printed in at least two press runs; perhaps there was a change in the number printed, or perhaps Pański ran out of a certain color ink, etc.

What is wrong with the above theory? By the way, does this mean the stamps were flat-press printed? It's easier to imagine printing on the gummed side of a sheet if you were printing on a flat press instead of a rotary press, at least a large machine-powered rotary press.

But perhaps if the gum is dry, it doesn't matter what kind of press you use.
1. Hank Bieniecki, of the Bieniecki International stamp dealership, tells me that stamps printed on two sides were fairly common on Post-WWI and Post-WWII Poland (e.g., Fischer 73-84. 85-96, 107-113) and in Central Lithuania stamps. Post-war paper shortages were the common denominator, in his opinion. (Fischer is the main Polish stamp catalog. It's even listed in Wikipedia.).

Actually, a recent eBay™ search reveals that double-sided prints are NOT so unusual. The day I looked (26 Nov. 2009), there had been recent listings for double-sided prints from Bavaria, Brazil, Burma, China, Ecuador, Great Britain, Lebanon, Poland (Scott 357A), Thailand, Uruguay, and Western Australia. There were also stamps gummed on both sides, surcharged on both sides, etc.
Warning! DO NOT SOAK stamps which are printed on both sides!  A member of the Sequoia Stamp Club in Redwood City, Calif. told me (mid-May, 2014) that he had some Venezuela stamps printed on both sides.  (E.g., Venezuela Scott 58b, 60b, 61c, 68a, 72b, 76a).   When he tried to soak the heavy hinges off the back side, the entire design floated off, consistent with being printed on top of the gum!
Stamps printed on both sides might have been called duplex prints, but in philately, the term duplex seems to be informally reserved for duplex cancels.

Last modified 11 June 2015